OS X (and other Apple things) and Dynamic DNS Updates
A while ago I found a couple notes on Dynamic DNS, using TSIG and dynamic
updates, and put together a dynamic subdomain for my domain. Apple gear (or
at least OS X) seems to require a couple particulars to function, and since
I keep forgetting what’s necessary I put together these notes.
Apple calls TSIG-signed dynamic updates “dynamic global hostname”. On OS X,
this can be turned on in System Preferences; hit the “Sharing” button, assign
a hostname (short name, not fully-qualified), and click the “Edit…” button.
Check the “Use dynamic global hostname” box.
Hostname should be the fully-qualified domain name you want to update. Oddly
enough, the User should also be the FQDN you wish to update. The
Password is the TSIG key.
For this to work, you’ll need a few special records in DNS; Apple calls this
“Bonjour”. Really, it’s a bunch of SRV records. Add the following:
; DDNS update glue _dns-update.udp IN SRV 0 0 53 ddns.example.com. b._dns-sd._udp IN PTR @ ; browse domain db._dns-sd._udp IN PTR @ ; dr._dns-sd._udp IN PTR @ ; lb._dns-sd._udp IN PTR @ ; legacy browse r._dns-sd._udp IN PTR @ ; registration domain
Explanations of all these SRV records can be found in the references, below.
In addition, you’ll need to configure your domain to support DDNS, and set up
a TSIG key for your machine. When you set up the TSIG key, you’ll need to
make a 256-bit MD5 authentication code:
dnssec-keygen -a HMAC-MD5 -b 256 -r /dev/urandom -n HOST host.ddns.example.com.
Don’t forget the trailing period on the hostname when using
dnssec-keygen. It’s not necessary for OS X, but
really likes it.
One last little oddity: it looks like Apple devices will only update a single
nameserver with their changes. If you have multiple DNSes listed as
authoritative for your dynamic zone, you’ll want to make the first one listed
(and the one listed in the update glue record) able to receive updates, then
fashion some method of replication to your other nameservers. It appears
that if Apple gets a successful submission from one server, it never bothers
to attempt injecting the update into other machines (but it will fail over
to other nameservers, and update them, if the first one fails to respond).
Here’s a few links I found handy in piecing things together: